Selected Examples of Rackham DEI Programs, Initiatives, and Resources

Rackham Merit Fellowship

Foci: Recruitment for Diversity; Retention; High Quality Academic & Professional Environment, Inclusive Climate

Our Rackham Merit Fellowship (RMF) Program is one of our largest and most successful innovations for enhancing student diversity. The RMF is awarded to entering students with:

  1. Outstanding academic qualifications
  2. Who come from an educational, cultural or geographic background that is underrepresented
  3. Who have contributed to diversity in wider academic, professional, or civic communities
  4. Who have experienced financial hardship and/or were first generation college graduates and/or first generation U.S. citizens.

We award approximately 160 doctoral fellowships each academic year across all of our academic programs. The RMF for doctoral students is a five-year funding partnership between Rackham and the graduate program that includes tuition, stipend, and health/dental coverage. Additionally, we provide 50 semesters of RMF fellowship for master’s students and are planning to increase this support in the future to help enhance the diversity of our master’s programs. We offer orientation and transition support programming for Fellows in the summer prior to students’ graduate program entry. In addition, Fellows have opportunities to participate in programming throughout their graduate years focused on academic and professional development (e.g., mentoring workshops with their faculty advisors, writing workshops, career panels and consultation, interdisciplinary learning communities, professional networking events). This programming is designed and tailored to support students from varying disciplinary backgrounds (humanities and arts, social sciences, natural sciences and engineering) and at different graduate stages (pre-candidacy, as well as post-candidacy and dissertation stage). Through this program, we have learned a great deal about the vast diversity among our student population (including those from historically underrepresented and/or marginalized backgrounds in higher education) and the different types of supports most useful to their graduate program transition and completion. This program both supports students and provides the programs with opportunities to recruit and engage with excellent, diverse student communities. Social science scholarship highlights the positive benefits of such diversity (at student and faculty levels) for all students and program members.

Summer Undergraduate Programs for Recruitment

Foci: Recruitment for Diversity; High Quality Academic & Professional Environment, Inclusive Climate

Michigan has a long tradition of offering summer research experiences that have attracted historically underrepresented students. Some programs are open to U-M students, but others are aimed at attracting individuals from other institutions (e.g., Chemistry’s NSF-supported Research Experiences for Undergraduates). Although many of these programs are in STEM fields, the program that has included students from the broadest range of fields is the Summer Research Opportunity Program (SROP). In 1986 the Graduate Deans of the Big Ten Academic Alliance (formerly the Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC)) initiated SROP to encourage talented undergraduate students from groups underrepresented in graduate education to pursue graduate study, and subsequently, academic careers (with “underrepresented” defined based on our RMF criteria). SROP allows undergraduates the opportunity to work on graduate level research projects with faculty. Students work with faculty mentors either on an individual basis or as part of a research team. In addition, all participants engage in a series of academic, professional, and personal development seminars as well as social and cultural experiences. Students in SROP build professional and personal networks that support their interest in joining the academic community. Since its implementation, over 1,500 students across the disciplines at U-M have participated in this program, with significant numbers applying and matriculating to graduate programs at U-M and other peers as a result of their experiences.

The University of Michigan (with Rackham as the lead unit) has recently been added to the Mellon-supported Creating Connections Consortium (C3) designed to address the challenges of diversity in higher education by building capacity, investing in cohorts of talented graduate students and faculty from diverse groups, and creating and nurturing connections between partners interested in institutional change. This is a partnership with the Liberal Arts Diversity Officers Consortium (LADO) and includes opportunities for undergraduate students from the liberal arts colleges to carry out summer research at U-M and U-M Ph.D. students, particularly those who are underrepresented, with teaching and scholarly opportunities at liberal arts colleges.

In addition, in 2015, the programs in the Humanities and the Arts developed a newly launched program designed to better fit the norms and needs of humanities disciplines and programs. This program grew out of research on diversity recruitment programs by the Rackham Graduate School Humanities Diversity Committee in the summer of 2014. The Michigan Humanities Emerging Research Scholars program (MICHHERS) is a one-week program focusing on developing a piece of scholarship submitted by students as part of their application to the program. Students work closely with faculty and graduate student mentors on this writing, which culminates in research presentations on the final day of the program. In addition, students receive preparation in applying to graduate school and in writing the graduate school application. We were very pleased with the outcome of the first year’s efforts. Michigan received over 100 applications for 15 spots, 5 in each of three departments: English Language and Literature, History, and Linguistics. Well over 90% of the participants agreed or strongly agreed that the program was a positive experience and that they would recommend it to others. We look forward to following up with these participants to encourage their application to U-M programs.

Building Bridges to the Doctorate

Foci: Recruitment for Diversity; Retention; High Quality Academic & Professional Environment, Inclusive Climate

Another significant initiative is our Building Bridges to the Doctorate Program, led and administered through Rackham Graduate School and supported through an NSF Innovation through Institutional Integration (I3) grant as well as partnerships with the College of Literature, Science & Arts and College of Engineering. As a part of the terms of this federally funded initiative, the program is a fully funded master’s program designed to attract a diverse student body into doctoral education, including those from historically underrepresented racial/ethnic groups. Over the past five years, the Bridges program included four participating departments: Applied and Interdisciplinary Mathematics, Applied Physics, Ecological and Evolutionary Biology, and Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology. Bridges program students take graduate level courses—often alongside first year doctoral students—that allow them to develop their skills, capacity, and confidence in a structured and supportive environment. In addition to curricular and academic experiences, students are engaged in research activities that provide opportunities to learn about the key steps in professional development, as well as critical skills that scholars and scientists need (conceptual and technical skills, writing and presenting skills, etc.). Prior to engaging in coursework and research experiences, students are matched with faculty advisors and participate together in a mentoring workshop to support the development of an effective mentoring relationship. As a result, Bridges students are prepared to enter doctoral programs with considerable confidence, skill, and sophistication and are highly competitive for admission to doctoral programs at both U-M and peer institutions. At our fifth year of this program, results indicate a significant impact on the pipeline of URM students in doctoral study. Of the 50 students who have entered our Bridges program, 94% completed the master’s and 77% have now matriculated into Ph.D. programs (with 40% of those master’s completers having entered U-M Ph.D. programs). Another signal of impact is the recent development of new Bridges programs in our College of Engineering (in partnership with Rackham), as well as expressed interest in developing Bridges program models in departments in the Social Sciences and Humanities and Arts. These are additional indicators that the Bridges program is serving as a model for enhancing diversity and excellence in graduate education at U-M.

Rackham Admissions for Diversity and Excellence Workshop

Focus: Recruitment for Diversity

This workshop is one of several resources offered by Rackham to support recruitment of an excellent, diverse student community. It is designed to provide faculty and teams of faculty and staff participating in their programs’ admissions processes with background information and concrete advice about strategies and practices that make admissions processes more successful and equitable (i.e., that maximize the likelihood that diverse, well-qualified applicants will be identified and selected for admissions in their programs). The workshop first provides participants with accurate information about the legal context around recruitment and admissions, including dispelling myths or misconceptions that may inhibit or undermine recruitment efforts. The workshop also draws on social science research on key obstacles to effective admissions decision making, such as: implicit biases that routinely enter evaluation contexts; over-reliance on single criterion or use of poor predictive criteria (such as standardized test score cut-offs); and time and planning needed for thoughtful review. The workshop addresses these obstacles, focusing on legally compliant strategies for developing admissions procedures that ensure equitable evaluation, and effective use of holistic review approaches, that increase the likelihood of identifying, admitting, and yielding diverse applicants with strong program fit.

In our DE&I efforts, one priority is to work with schools/colleges and departments to encourage/require regular participation in this workshop for their department/program admissions committee members. A related priority is expanding this type of workshop offering to also include students. We already have done this at a smaller level (e.g., requests from departments/units whose students serve on admissions committees). As the content of the workshop represents one type of “training” expressed as desirable by students, faculty, and staff, we are working on best ways to provide this content and resource to our broader faculty, staff, and student populations.

Rackham “Circle of Recruitment” Workshop

Foci: Recruitment for Diversity; High Quality Academic & Professional Environment, Mentoring & Inclusive Climate; Retention

This workshop is designed to support faculty and faculty-staff teams in developing a strategic approach for achieving diversity and excellence in their graduate student communities. The recruitment workshop is based on our “circle of recruitment” framework—based in research and documented effective practices at U-M and beyond—and emphasizes multiple dimensions, or “phases” that affect recruitment, from identifying prospective students to supporting students’ progress to completion after admissions and matriculation. A primary premise guiding the workshop is that recruitment is a dynamic process involving multiple phases both prior to and after the admissions decisions, and these phases influence one another. Some programs put substantial efforts into one or two phases (e.g., recruitment weekends, conference visits) and show some success, but they ignore other phases (admissions criteria, the impact of programs’ retention record on future recruitment potential, the program’s mentoring reputation, engaging alumni to support recruitment). In our workshop, we emphasize that attending to all phases can help programs best meet their recruitment goals around diversity and excellence. The workshop supports participants in understanding and identifying their current recruitment strengths, needs, and opportunities of their specific departments based on their own program data (which we provide them). By the end of the workshop, participants develop a draft of a recruitment plan based on the attributes and capacity of their program, along with identification of needed supports to carry out the plan. Following the workshop, Rackham offers in-person, individual coaching around the recruitment plan, including planning for points of further consultation.

Rackham Program Review

Foci: Recruitment for Diversity; High Quality Academic & Professional Environment, Mentoring & Inclusive Climate; Retention

As a central part of Rackham’s efforts to support excellence and improvement in graduate education at U-M, we regularly conduct a review of every doctoral and master’s program (currently on a 4 year cycle). This review process is a partnership among Rackham, the Dean’s offices of schools/colleges, and the graduate programs. During the review of each program, Rackham provides the program leadership with a portfolio of program-specific data on all aspects of graduate education – including comparisons to other programs – to help inform conversations on the program’s practices. One important source of data is survey responses collected from the program’s graduate students around their program experiences, including academic and professional development and supports, program climate, and sense of belonging, among other areas. Diversity is a critical feature of the Program Review, and we use program- and student-level data to engage with program leadership around their diversity challenges and efforts (e.g., in recruiting, mentoring, climate, and retention). The review complements the programs’ current activities and goals through the sharing of ideas and promising practices in graduate education. At the end of the process, Rackham produces a summary report with program-specific recommendations. The programs respond with their plan for addressing the recommendations and moving their graduate programs forward. As a result of the Rackham Program Review, we are better informed about the needs and challenges of each Rackham program, and we make policy, develop programmatic initiatives, and make decisions about funding and other resource allocations accordingly.

Alliances for Graduate Education and the Professoriate

Foci: Retention; High Quality Academic & Professional Environment, Mentoring & Inclusive Climate

Rackham also is invested in programmatic activities that promote student community and success. As an example, Rackham is a participant in two initiatives funded by the National Science Foundation Alliances for Graduate Education and the Professoriate (AGEP) Transformation grants. The first is the Michigan AGEP Alliance (MAA). As a part of the terms for this federally funded initiative, this alliance involves 5 partner universities in Michigan (with U-M as the lead institution) that developed programmatic and research activities designed to increase the success of underrepresented minority (URM) graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in STEM fields (including natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences fields) and to support their pathways to academic/faculty careers.

Core activities center on 1) improving mentoring relationships and 2) engaging in interdisciplinary learning communities.

The programmatic efforts designed to improve mentoring relationships are:

  • faculty-to-faculty training in evidence-based strategies for effective mentoring;
  • the development of individual mentoring agreements tailored to the discipline and circumstances of each advising pair of faculty and student, as well as the students’ career stage; and
  • developing skills in mentoring through graduate students’ relationships with faculty, research staff, postdocs, graduate and undergraduate students.

The programmatic efforts designed to improve engagement in interdisciplinary learning communities are:

  • building interdisciplinary learning communities on each campus of graduate students to encourage participants to develop their research ideas, share their ideas across disciplinary boundaries, and learn to explain themselves to those in other fields;
  • engaging participants in learning communities across Alliance institutions to discuss research and its impact in the world; and
  • linking faculty, senior researchers, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students in conversations about the factors that make for productive and satisfying careers in research and scholarship.
Expanding beyond STEM

While the AGEP program has had a historical focus on STEM and social sciences (NSF-eligible departments and disciplines), we are drawing on lessons learned from our AGEP participation around mentoring and learning communities to expand this model and our programming – especially that focused on mentoring and learning communities – to include and support students across all Rackham programs and disciplines. For instance, the AGEP project team has partnered with other programs and campus stakeholders, including graduate students and student organizations, e.g., collaboration with SCOR and SMES-G student organizations around a campus-wide symposium linking research to the public and social justice (the “Navigating the Maize” conference); and collaborations with the Rackham Merit Fellowship program and Bridges to the Doctorate program activities.

In addition to the AGEP MAA, Rackham is a participant in another AGEP program, the NSF-funded Big Ten Academic Alliance AGEP Professoriate Advancement Initiative (Big Ten Academic Alliance-PAI), a collaboration of 12 Big Ten Academic Alliance member institutions – led by their graduate deans – working together for systematic, multi-institutional cultural change designed to increase the progression of URM postdocs into the professoriate. The goals and activities of the Big Ten Academic Alliance-PAI focus on developing a high-quality mentoring network that will improve the transition of postdoctoral fellows into the professoriate in the STEM disciplines (including natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences) and markedly increase the number of URM tenure track faculty members hired at Big Ten Academic Alliance institutions in these disciplines, including U-M.

We also have extended our focus on postdoctoral fellows beyond STEM through our participation in the Creating Connections Consortium (C3) Postdoctoral program designed to enhance faculty diversity in higher education by creating partnerships between R1 universities and the Liberal Arts Diversity Officers Consortium (LADO). This partnership includes opportunities for graduate students from U-M—including those who are underrepresented—to apply for postdoctoral positions at liberal arts colleges that may lead to faculty position offers at LADO institutions. In this first year of participation in the C3 partnership, U-M had a record number of postdoctoral applicants, including a postdoctoral awardee.

Mentoring Others Results in Excellence (MORE)

Foci: High Quality Academic & Professional Environment, Mentoring & Inclusive Climate; Retention

Mentoring is an issue that has emerged as a key theme this year as we gathered information and community input from students, faculty, and staff as part of Rackham’s Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion strategic planning process. From Rackham’s perspective, mentoring is one of the most important equity issues in graduate education. We know – from social science research and our own local data – that the faculty-student mentoring relationship is linked to student academic outcomes (e.g., productivity in research/scholarship and publication, degree completion), as well as to social and mental health outcomes that affect students’ academic adjustment. As such, students having access to and opportunities for high quality mentoring is critical to an equitable learning environment for all students. That said, we also know from research that there are issues of diversity and difference that can emerge in mentoring (related to race/ethnicity, gender, citizenship, culture, socioeconomic background, sexual orientation, age, among other background and identity characteristics) that, if not attended to, can affect the quality and effectiveness of the mentoring relationship.

An initiative to build and improve faculty capacity for mentoring in a diverse campus community is our Mentoring Others Results in Excellence (MORE) program. MORE is a Rackham committee of multi-disciplinary faculty leaders (across six different Schools and Colleges at the University of Michigan), with the goal of providing faculty with effective tools and practices for mentoring graduate students from diverse backgrounds, thus improving the graduate school experience for all students. Issues of diversity, equity, and inclusion are central to MORE’s focus. As such, MORE synthesizes academic literature on effective mentoring (e.g., mentoring across difference, mentor’s dilemma, stereotype threat) with committee members’ personal and professional experiences in mentoring graduate students from diverse social, ethnic/racial, gender, and cultural backgrounds. The committee then engages with faculty to foster conversations about mentoring. A key activity of MORE is the Mentoring Workshop, which brings together groups of mentors and their student mentees to discuss and plan their respective mentoring relationships. The workshop begins with the understanding that the process of working together across different levels of academic experience, as well as differences in personal backgrounds, work styles, and life experiences, is often challenging. Although some aspects of the mentor’s and student’s work together may go very smoothly, other dimensions of the relationship can be improved by a structured dialogue between the mentor and the student. The workshop provides an opportunity for faculty to discuss a range of mentoring strategies with their peers. Among strategies discussed is how to develop mentoring plans, a two-way agreement between faculty and student about goals and expectations. The workshop also addresses common scenarios and challenges encountered by faculty and students. In addition to working with faculty and student dyads, MORE works at the department level, providing whole department faculty workshops around effective mentoring for a diverse student body. Rackham also draws on the MORE program to provide the faculty mentoring programming for our Rackham Merit Fellowship, AGEP, and Bridges to the Doctorate programs.

Faculty Allies Program

Foci: Recruitment for Diversity; High Quality Academic & Professional Environment, Mentoring & Inclusive Climate; Retention

Another initiative to build faculty and program capacity to enhance diversity, equity, and inclusion is the Faculty Allies for Diversity program. Faculty Allies are a group of faculty members who work within their programs in collaboration with Rackham’s diversity initiatives on recruitment, admissions, climate, retention, and completion issues. Thus, the Faculty Allies play important leadership roles in their programs and, as a collective, move forward our broader university mission around promoting diversity and excellence. A primary goal is for Faculty Allies to work collaboratively with their department leadership and other colleagues to identify the diversity, equity, and inclusion issues relevant in their programs and to plan action steps to address them. Another related goal is for Faculty Allies to serve as one of the “go to” or support persons on DE&I issues in graduate education in their programs, including serving as a resource to their programs’ graduate students. Allies play critical roles as support and coordinating forces – for instance, they can raise awareness, as well as help support planning and connecting of diversity activities in their programs. Finally, while much of Allies’ efforts/activities occur within their program communities, Faculty Allies function as a leadership group and learning community, connecting with and drawing on one another for information, ideas and strategies, and support.

Currently, there are 89 Faculty Allies representing 81 of our Rackham departments and programs. While the number of Rackham programs with Faculty Ally representation has increased each year since the start of the program in 2010, our goal is for every Rackham program to designate a Faculty Ally and include the Ally in their DE&I efforts around graduate education. To encourage this, Rackham recently instituted a policy requiring programs to have an active Faculty Ally in order to be eligible to receive Rackham Merit Fellowships to recruit and support students.

Rackham Diversity Grants

Foci: Recruitment for Diversity; High Quality Academic & Professional Environment, Mentoring & Inclusive Climate; Retention

This grant opportunity is available only to graduate programs with Faculty Allies and helps enable the Allies to build DE&I initiatives within their own departments with their faculty and staff colleagues and students. The grant program supports activities with funds and by facilitating connections to other, like-minded colleagues across the Graduate School to form communities where innovative and effective ideas and strategies for enhancing diversity can be shared. The grant projects must focus on a set of activities to encourage diversity, equity, and/or inclusion in one (or more than one) Rackham degree program, in a way that enhances the recruitment of diverse students to the program(s), the academic progress of students, and/or the career success of students in the program(s). Note: legal parameters are considered in the review and awards process for all grant proposals. Since 2011, Rackham has funded 35 diversity grants, which have already resulted in demonstrable positive effects. Example outcomes include: development of successful recruitment approaches (e.g., campus visitations, partnerships with minority serving institutions) that have resulted in a marked increase in underrepresented minority student matriculation in those programs; increased opportunities for students to learn about scholarly issues related to diversity and equity through the development of sponsored speaker series or enhanced curricular offerings related to diversity and equity; and academic and professional development programming (e.g., mentored summer writing opportunities, academic and career panels including diverse participants) that have increased equitable access of academic and professional opportunities for students from all backgrounds, including those from historically underrepresented backgrounds.

Graduate Student Programs

Foci: Recruitment for Diversity; High Quality Academic & Professional Environment, Mentoring & Inclusive Climate; Retention

An important partner to all of our programmatic initiatives is the Rackham Graduate School’s Office of Graduate Student Programs (GSP). The Director of GSS – in addition to coordinating the activities of GSS – serves as a liaison to many units on campus that work on DE&I issues related to students’ development and support (e.g., Student Life). The GSS Recruitment Specialist develops and manages databases for identifying strong pools of prospective students from diverse backgrounds and shares these data with graduate programs along with other resources (e.g., workshops, written materials, and consultation) to support effective recruitment practices for enhancing diversity; runs recruitment workshops; and administers recruitment grants to programs to enable their recruitment efforts. GSS Academic Program Officers offer a variety of opportunities to support the academic, professional, and personal development and well-being of diverse undergraduates participating in Rackham summer programming. Most centrally, they develop and offer programming to support all graduate students once they are on campus, with specific attention to issues of diversity, including the needs of students from historically underrepresented or marginalized backgrounds. Examples of GSS activities include graduate school application preparation workshops, academic writing and dissertation writing workshops, mentoring workshops, career exploration conferences, interdisciplinary research conferences, community-building events, and activities and resources that support and promote students’ personal well-being. These offerings also include activities developed specifically for the aforementioned Rackham Merit Fellows, Bridges, and AGEP communities, as well as for student organizations serving diverse constituencies (e.g., Students of Color of Rackham; Multicultural Leadership Council).

Rackham Staff

Along with advancing the values of DE&I in graduate education for our students and academic programs, we are just as committed to representing our DE&I values within our Rackham organization and staff community. However, relative to data and information about our students and academic programs, we had less information on the perspectives and experiences of Rackham staff. For instance, while we routinely assess the climate experiences of students in our programs in formal and informal ways, there had not been a climate assessment conducted within Rackham. As such, a key goal in our DE&I planning process was to begin a process of learning about staff’s experiences, including their views of strengths and challenges related to DE&I, so that we could then develop ways of building on strengths and addressing challenges.

Rackham Staff Demographics Summary: Among the 67 Rackham faculty and staff (including 5 faculty members, Dean Fierke and the 4 associate deans), 75% are women and 27% are from historically underrepresented racial/ethnic backgrounds.[1] Furthermore, there is variation across Rackham units with regard to staff gender and racial composition.

Preliminary Data: Rackham’s new Administrative Director (Dawn Viau, who joined Rackham in November 2015) engaged in numerous informal discussions with Rackham staff across Rackham units, in order to begin to learn about their experiences and viewpoints in ways that could help support and enhance staff’s individual and collective work and work experience. Discussions focused on staff views of positive aspects (“one or two things I like most…”) and negative aspects (“if I was able to change something, it would be…”) of their experience at Rackham. The table below summarizes themes emerging from these staff discussions, with example excerpts from staff members’ quotes under each theme.

Table 4: One or Two Things I Like the Most

Category Example(s)
  • Staff Forum
  • Ability to learn new things
  • Breadth of projects worked on
  • Ability to learn new technology
Work Climate/Culture
  • Energy with all that’s going on
  • Feels like a family
  • Culture of collaboration
  • Strong ethics and integrity
  • Contribution to the rest of the University
Work Environment
  • Interaction with so many units and staff
  • Challenges due to changes
  • Like the work (type, variety, etc.)
  • Building
  • Stable work environment
  • Dynamic
  • Ability to see impact on students
  • Support provided
  • Interaction with students

Table 5: If I Was Able to Change Something

Category Example
  • Lack of communication within and across departments
  • Lack of inclusion outside own area
  • More transparency and sharing of knowledge/information
  • More and clearer communication from leadership
  • Provide ongoing feedback
  • Website
  • Opportunity for advancement in Rackham
  • Encourage growth
  • More educational and career development opportunities
  • Be more innovative
Work Climate/Culture
  • Less silos and more collaboration within and across departments
  • More staff engagement at all levels
  • Inequities (e.g., department, degree, level of position)
  • Lack of inclusion outside own area
  • Leadership to be more approachable
  • Show more appreciation and respect to staff
  • Lack of recognition
Work Environment
  • Eliminate silos
  • Improve collaborations across departments/teams
  • Uniformity of guidelines/policies across Rackham
  • Make the staff lounge more of a gathering place (e.g., lounge, exercise, collaboration space)
  • More job sharing and working with/in other areas
  • Reduce segregation of staff
  • Too many steps and people to go through to get things done
  • More automation/use of work flows
  • Create efficiencies, reduce/eliminate redundancies, work smarter
  • More and better use of technology
  • Lack of change
  • Staff review/evaluation process

Of note is that these initial findings suggest variation in staff experiences of inclusion, e.g., with some feeling like a family and having strong sense of community, and feeling inspired about their roles/contributions in enhancing graduate education. However, some others felt more isolated, e.g., feeling as though people operated in silos, lack of inclusion outside of their own unit/area, feeling less acknowledged or recognized for their contributions. In addition, there was variation in staff experiences around equity; for instance, some staff lamented having limited opportunities for mentoring, development, and advancement within Rackham, while others experienced their work setting as affording opportunities for learning new things and providing supports for growth and career opportunities. An important next step in this data gathering process would be to do a deeper dive into staff experiences, as well as the organizational structures and practices and social norms that may contribute to positive and negative experiences.

[1] The demographic information is from April 2016.